2020 NOV 02-09 (02) Time Double Edition: Europe Has Big Plans for a Green New Deal. Poland’s Coal Country Isn’t So Sure

THE GREAT RESET
The landscape surrounding a coal mine in the Polish region of Silesia in 1978

The landscape surrounding a coal mine in the Polish region of Silesia in 1978. Michał Cała

by Justin Worland October 22, 2020 8:31 AM EDT

It’s winter in The south of Poland[1]fn01 Poland is the second-largest coal-mining country in Europe, after Germany, and the ninth-largest coal producer in the world. … As of 2020, coal powered 74% of Poland’s electricity … Continue reading, but the ground is clear of any snow, and the thick clouds don’t carry any precipitation. Instead, the skies have been darkened by a layer of smog. The culprit is coal, and if there was any doubt, it would be dispelled by the 50-mile drive across the countryside from historic Krakow[2]fn01 Kraków (/ˈkrækaʊ, -koʊ/, also US: /ˈkreɪk-, ˈkrɑːkaʊ/, UK: /ˈkrækɒf/, Polish: [ˈkrakuf] (About this soundlisten), written in English as Krakow and traditionally known as Cracow, … Continue reading to the industrial city of Katowice[3]fn01 Katowice (UK: /ˌkætəˈviːtsə/ KAT-ə-VEET-sə, US: /ˌkɑːt-/ KAHT-, Polish: [katɔˈvitsɛ] (About this soundlisten); Silesian: Katowicy; German: Kattowitz) is a city in southern Poland, … Continue reading. Lining the highway, there are the Coal-Processing Facilities[4]fn01 A coal preparation plant (CPP; also known as a coal handling and preparation plant (CHPP), coal handling plant, prep plant, tipple or wash plant) is a facility that washes coal of soil and rock, … Continue reading, where the rock is cleaned and prepared for use. Smokestacks jut into the sky, marking the country’s Coal-Fired Power Plants[5]fn01 A coal-fired power station or coal power plant is a thermal power station which burns coal to generate electricity. Coal-fired power stations generate over a third of the world’s … Continue reading. Even the homes, visible from the highway, have a faint gray-colored exhaust, the result of the coal being used for heat.

The pollution is a blight; Katowice[6]fn02 Katowice (UK: /ˌkætəˈviːtsə/ KAT-ə-VEET-sə, US: /ˌkɑːt-/ KAHT-, Polish: [katɔˈvitsɛ] (About this soundlisten); Silesian: Katowicy; German: Kattowitz) is a city in southern Poland, … Continue reading ranks among the most polluted cities in Europe, and locals complain about the low air quality. But even so, many here aren’t ready to let go of the natural resource that has powered the nation’s economy since the Industrial Revolution.

Culture in Katowice[7]fn03 Katowice (UK: /ˌkætəˈviːtsə/ KAT-ə-VEET-sə, US: /ˌkɑːt-/ KAHT-, Polish: [katɔˈvitsɛ] (About this soundlisten); Silesian: Katowicy; German: Kattowitz) is a city in southern Poland, … Continue reading—and in smaller cities and towns in the surrounding province of Silesia[8]fn01 Silesia is a historical region of Central Europe mostly in Poland, with small parts in the Czech Republic and Germany. Its area is approximately 40,000 km², and the population is estimated at … Continue reading — developed around the mines, from the soccer clubs sponsored by the mining companies to the local festivals they supported. Strikes at Silesian coal mines played a key role in the uprising that brought democracy to Poland[9]fn02 Poland is the second-largest coal-mining country in Europe, after Germany, and the ninth-largest coal producer in the world. … As of 2020, coal powered 74% of Poland’s electricity … Continue reading in the 1980s. 

Today, the mines still occupy a place of reverence to many of the region’s residents. A 131-ft. former mine-shaft tower sits near the city center, and at the adjacent Silesian Museum, visitors can walk away with souvenir coal paraphernalia.

“People may not like it, but they also need to acknowledge the good side,” says former underground coal miner Marek Wystyrk[10]fn01 Works at Fanpage PGG Polska Grupa Górnicza; Studied Logistyka Inżynierska at Silesian University of Technology; Studied Międzynarodowe stosunki at Akademia Ekonomiczna im. Karola Adamieckiego … Continue reading over coffee in Katowice[11]fn04 Katowice (UK: /ˌkætəˈviːtsə/ KAT-ə-VEET-sə, US: /ˌkɑːt-/ KAHT-, Polish: [katɔˈvitsɛ] (About this soundlisten); Silesian: Katowicy; German: Kattowitz) is a city in southern Poland, … Continue reading when TIME visited in December 2018. “It’s not all evil.”

Katowice[12]fn05 Katowice (UK: /ˌkætəˈviːtsə/ KAT-ə-VEET-sə, US: /ˌkɑːt-/ KAHT-, Polish: [katɔˈvitsɛ] (About this soundlisten); Silesian: Katowicy; German: Kattowitz) is a city in southern Poland, … Continue reading, with a population around 300,000, may seem like an odd place to look to understand the future of the European Union. But as the E.U. seeks to turn its recovery from the coronavirus pandemic into a moment to pivot to a Greener Future[13]fn01 Environment Plan – ‘A Green Future: Long Term Plan to Improve the Environment’ SIX STEPS (1) Using and managing land sustainably (2) Recovering nature and enhancing the beauty … Continue reading, this city and myriad others built upon a fossil-fuel economy face a reckoning. The E.U. actually began as an alliance around coal and steel production. But that was 70 years ago, and now the union is attempting to unite against the threat of Climate Change[14]fn01 Climate variability includes all the variations in the climate that last longer than individual weather events, whereas the term climate change only refers to those variations that persist for a … Continue reading.

The plan is simple yet bold. In December, the E.U. outlined plans to spend what would total €1 trillion ($1.17 trillion) on a “Green Deal[15]fn01 SEE URL: https://ec.europa.eu/info/strategy/priorities-2019-2024/european-green-deal_en” aimed at eliminating the bloc’s Carbon Footprint[16]fn01 carbon footprint https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Carbon_footprint by 2050 and refashioning the economy around new, Low-Carbon Industries[17]fn01 A low-carbon economy (LCE), low-fossil-fuel economy (LFFE), or decarbonised economy is an economy based on low-carbon power sources that therefore has a minimal output of greenhouse gas (GHG) … Continue reading.

The investment, originally meant to be funded through the E.U. budget, private-sector financing and other country contributions, includes everything from retrofitting buildings to scaling up the infrastructure necessary for Electric Vehicles to investing in Hydrogen-Energy Storage[18]fn01 Hydrogen storage is a term used for any of several methods for storing hydrogen for later use. These methods encompass mechanical approaches such as high pressures and low temperatures, or … Continue reading.

After the pandemic struck, the E.U. structured its COVID-19 recovery package around accelerating the plan. “We need to change how we treat nature, how we produce and consume, live and work, eat and heat, travel and transport,” said Ursula von der Leyen[19]fn01 Ursula Gertrud von der Leyen is a German politician and the president of the European Commission since 1 December 2019. She served in the federal government of Germany from 2005 to 2019 as the … Continue reading, president of the European Commission[20]fn01 The European Commission is the executive branch of the European Union, responsible for proposing legislation, implementing decisions, upholding the EU treaties and managing the day-to-day … Continue reading, the E.U.’s executive body, in a September speech.

Bold moves to address Climate Change[21]fn02 Climate variability includes all the variations in the climate that last longer than individual weather events, whereas the term climate change only refers to those variations that persist for a … Continue reading are broadly popular—polling has shown more than 90% of E.U. citizens support aggressive action on Climate Change[22]fn03 Climate variability includes all the variations in the climate that last longer than individual weather events, whereas the term climate change only refers to those variations that persist for a … Continue reading—but any serious measure to tackle the issue faces one big challenge: the many regions and industries across the Continent that remain reliant on heavy industry and Fossil Fuels[23]fn01 A fossil fuel is a fuel formed by natural processes, such as anaerobic decomposition of buried dead organisms, containing organic molecules originating in ancient photosynthesis that release … Continue reading.

So officials in Brussels crafted a so-called Just Transition plan to direct some €150 billion ($177 billion) to the regions most vulnerable to a move away from Fossil Fuels[24]fn02 A fossil fuel is a fuel formed by natural processes, such as anaerobic decomposition of buried dead organisms, containing organic molecules originating in ancient photosynthesis that release … Continue reading.

The money is intended to act both as a catalyst for these regions to adapt and as an insurance policy to make sure the climate agenda maintains broad popular support. The Climate Change[25]fn04 Climate variability includes all the variations in the climate that last longer than individual weather events, whereas the term climate change only refers to those variations that persist for a … Continue reading in Europe and the nature of the bloc’s economic development.

It might determine the jobs and industries that employ workers across the Continent for the next century.

In Poland[26]fn03 Poland is the second-largest coal-mining country in Europe, after Germany, and the ninth-largest coal producer in the world. … As of 2020, coal powered 74% of Poland’s electricity … Continue reading, the Green Deal[27]fn02 SEE URL: https://ec.europa.eu/info/strategy/priorities-2019-2024/european-green-deal_en has already fueled a rush to chart a new path, one that honors the country’s coal-mining heritage while also preparing it for a new future.

In September, the country committed to shutting down its coal mines for good.

The question now is how to do that, and whether the country can move fast enough to meet the E.U.’s deadlines. “We are at a key, critical moment in the history of Poland[28]fn04 Poland is the second-largest coal-mining country in Europe, after Germany, and the ninth-largest coal producer in the world. … As of 2020, coal powered 74% of Poland’s electricity … Continue reading and in the making of the European Green Deal[29]fn03 SEE URL: https://ec.europa.eu/info/strategy/priorities-2019-2024/european-green-deal_en,” says Michal Kurtyka[30]fn01 Michał Tadeusz Kurtyka is a Polish manager, economist, and civil servant who currently serves as the Minister of Climate and Environment. He is a technocrat and a non-partisan figure. Kurtyka … Continue reading Poland’s Climate Minister.

The stakes may be just as high abroad. From Kentucky[31]fn01 Coal was discovered in Kentucky in 1750. Since the first commercial coal mine opened in 1820 coal has gained both economic importance and controversy regarding its environmental consequences. As … Continue reading to South Australia[32]fn01  Coal is Australia’s largest energy resource and around 60% of the nation’s electricity is currently produced in coal-fired power stations. Black coal is also used to produce coke … Continue reading, Ukraine[33]fn01 Coal mining in Ukraine is often associated with coal-rich Donets basin. However this is not the only coal mining region, other being Lviv-Volhynian basin and Dnieper brown coal mining basin. The … Continue reading to Indonesia[34]fn01 Indonesia holds 24,910 million tons (MMst) of proven coal reserves as of 2016, ranking 11th in the world and accounting for about 2% of the world’s total coal reserves of 1,139,471 million … Continue readingcoal communities around the world are watching closely, looking for models of a successful transition. 

More important, because the E.U. is the world’s second largest economy and second largest market, the Green Deal[35]fn04 SEE URL: https://ec.europa.eu/info/strategy/priorities-2019-2024/european-green-deal_en will ripple across the world, igniting the global race to develop a clean-energy economy. “It is an invitation for cooperation—with China[36]fn01 China is the largest producer and consumer of coal in the world and is the largest user of coal-derived electricity. The share of coal in the energy mix declined during the 2010s, falling from … Continue reading, India[37]fn01 Coal in India has been mined since 1774 and is now the second fastest mined in the world, producing 716 million metric tons (789 million short tons) in 2018. In 2017, India had 315.14 billion … Continue reading, the United States[38]fn01 Coal mining in the United States is an industry in transition. Production in 2017 was down 33% from the peak production of 1,162.7 million short tons (1,055 million metric tons) in 2006. … … Continue reading, Canada[39]fn01 Canada produced 57 Mt of coal in 2019, of which 53% is metallurgical coal used for steel manufacturing and 47% thermal coal used for electricity. … With the phasing out of coal-fired … Continue reading,” says Karsten Sach[40]fn01 born in 1959, is Deputy Director-General for European and international Policy in the Federal Ministry for Environment, Nature Conservation, Building and Nuclear Safety in Germany, deputy director-general of the German Environment Ministry.[41]fn01 The Federal Ministry of the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety, abbreviated BMU, is a cabinet-level ministry of the Federal Republic of Germany. It has branches in Bonn and … Continue reading

But for the invitation to work, the miners in Katowice[42]fn06 Katowice (UK: /ˌkætəˈviːtsə/ KAT-ə-VEET-sə, US: /ˌkɑːt-/ KAHT-, Polish: [katɔˈvitsɛ] (About this soundlisten); Silesian: Katowicy; German: Kattowitz) is a city in southern Poland, … Continue reading will have to be on board.

The popular image of a coal miner is easy enough to picture: a large, hard-hatted man, dressed in a soiled uniform with a face darkened by the black rock he spends all day extracting. Marek Wystyrk[43]fn02 Works at Fanpage PGG Polska Grupa Górnicza; Studied Logistyka Inżynierska at Silesian University of Technology; Studied Międzynarodowe stosunki at Akademia Ekonomiczna im. Karola Adamieckiego … Continue reading couldn’t have looked more different: bespectacled and neatly dressed, he would look more in place in a library than deep underground. We meet in a café in a stately prewar office building in downtown Katowice[44]fn07 Katowice (UK: /ˌkætəˈviːtsə/ KAT-ə-VEET-sə, US: /ˌkɑːt-/ KAHT-, Polish: [katɔˈvitsɛ] (About this soundlisten); Silesian: Katowicy; German: Kattowitz) is a city in southern Poland, … Continue reading.

Men illegally mine for coal to be used to heat homes in Walbrzych, Poland, in 2013

Men illegally mine for coal to be used to heat homes in Walbrzych, Poland, in 2013. Matthew Busch

Wystyrk[45]fn03 Works at Fanpage PGG Polska Grupa Górnicza; Studied Logistyka Inżynierska at Silesian University of Technology; Studied Międzynarodowe stosunki at Akademia Ekonomiczna im. Karola Adamieckiego … Continue reading, who spent nearly 20 years in the underground mines, first as a miner and then as a manager, is full of what seem like contradictions. Speaking through a translator, he praises coal, but he doesn’t say he wants his kids to join the industry. He says something needs to be done about Climate Change[46]fn08 Climate variability includes all the variations in the climate that last longer than individual weather events, whereas the term climate change only refers to those variations that persist for a … Continue reading, but doesn’t think it should be Poland’s responsibility to address it.

He touts his region’s coal-mining heritage, but he decries how it has left so many behind. It’s a nuanced view—like those of so many on the ground—that’s rooted in an effort to grapple simultaneously with two dueling realities: coal has provided for millions of Polish families, and Climate Change[47]fn09 Climate variability includes all the variations in the climate that last longer than individual weather events, whereas the term climate change only refers to those variations that persist for a … Continue reading and the transition away fromFossil Fuels[48]fn03 A fossil fuel is a fuel formed by natural processes, such as anaerobic decomposition of buried dead organisms, containing organic molecules originating in ancient photosynthesis that release … Continue reading will, sooner or later, kill the industry.

“I would like to defend the good name of mining,” he says. “It’s not just environmental degradation.”

Indeed, coal has given Poland[49]fn05 Poland is the second-largest coal-mining country in Europe, after Germany, and the ninth-largest coal producer in the world. … As of 2020, coal powered 74% of Poland’s electricity … Continue reading a lot: the fuel for the country’s economic development for the past 150 years. Demand for the natural resource in Europe helped build Poland’s railroads and grow cities surrounding mines, and the rock became a symbol of prosperity and a strong work ethic. After World War II, Poland nationalized the mines in line with its shift to a communist economic system and helped power the entire Soviet bloc.

On the other side of the Iron Curtain, Western European countries sought new ways to collaborate and protect their common interests, and coal played a central role. In 1952, six European countries formed the European Coal and Steel Community. The organization, which would evolve into the 27-member European Union, was founded on the principle that a common market for coal and steel—essential to the economy of any industrialized nation—would eliminate the risk of another intra-European conflict and create a new foundation for economic development.

This alliance grew in significance over the following decades, especially as the Eastern bloc of communists eroded in the 1980s and 1990s. (In Poland[50]fn06 Poland is the second-largest coal-mining country in Europe, after Germany, and the ninth-largest coal producer in the world. … As of 2020, coal powered 74% of Poland’s electricity … Continue reading, that transition came about in part because of strikes that ground the country’s economy to a halt in 1988, including at coal mines.)

With time, the E.U. came to regulate the agricultural sector and make environmental policy. The central European government pushed its members to espouse democratic values and rewarded them with investments from its central budget. Poland[51]fn07 Poland is the second-largest coal-mining country in Europe, after Germany, and the ninth-largest coal producer in the world. … As of 2020, coal powered 74% of Poland’s electricity … Continue reading joined in 2004, after adopting a market economy and becoming a democracy.

But since the very beginning, tensions have existed between richer and poorer countries in the union over everything from fiscal policy to defense and migration. The need to respond to Climate Change[52]fn10 Climate variability includes all the variations in the climate that last longer than individual weather events, whereas the term climate change only refers to those variations that persist for a … Continue readingis no different, especially as it’s the poorer, largely Central and Eastern European nations whose economies depend more on heavy-polluting industry.

The Green Deal[53]fn05 SEE URL: https://ec.europa.eu/info/strategy/priorities-2019-2024/european-green-deal_en was born out of all those challenges. A new economy, European leaders hope, will lead to a revived and more integrated Continent. “The European Green Deal[54]fn06 SEE URL: https://ec.europa.eu/info/strategy/priorities-2019-2024/european-green-deal_en is Europe’s new growth strategy,” said  von der Leyen[55]fn02 Ursula Gertrud von der Leyen is a German politician and the president of the European Commission since 1 December 2019. She served in the federal government of Germany from 2005 to 2019 as the … Continue reading before she presented the program in December. “It will cut emissions while also creating jobs and improving our quality of life.”

At first, Poland[56]fn08 Poland is the second-largest coal-mining country in Europe, after Germany, and the ninth-largest coal producer in the world. … As of 2020, coal powered 74% of Poland’s electricity … Continue reading rejected the plan’s ambitions. President Andrzej Duda[57]fn01 Andrzej Sebastian Duda is a Polish lawyer and politician who has served as president of Poland since 6 August 2015. Before becoming president, Andrzej Duda was a member of the Polish Lower House … Continue reading had promised to save the coal industry and its jobs—part of a controversial populist appeal to national identity and heritage. “As long as I am the President,” he said in 2018, “I won’t allow for anyone to murder Polish mining.” For months, Duda’s government opposed the bloc’s  2050 Carbon-Neutrality[58]fn01 Carbon neutrality refers to achieving net zero carbon dioxide emissions by balancing carbon dioxide emissions with removal (often through carbon offsetting) or simply eliminating carbon dioxide … Continue reading, the only E.U. country to do so.

Then the coronavirus pandemic hit. Rather than slow down the process, leaders in Brussels saw an opportunity to expedite their plans. The E.U. Commission—the bloc’s executive body—promised to pour hundreds of billions of euros into the economy in response to the virus and the subsequent lockdowns that halted economies across the Continent.

A quarter of the €750 billion recovery plan would be directed toward Low-Carbon investments; the remainder of the funds came with a “Do No Harm” provision, meaning the investment shouldn’t be used on projects that harm the environment. And, to keep up the momentum, E.U. leadership promised to spend that proportion of the bloc’s budget on green measures over the next seven years.

Polish leaders in Warsaw[59]fn01 Warsaw (/ˈwɔːrsɔː/ WOR-saw; Polish: Warszawa [varˈʂava] (About this soundlisten); see also other names) is the capital and largest city of Poland. The metropolis stands on the Vistula … Continue reading faced a conundrum: the government remained rhetorically committed to coal, but the economics had become increasingly difficult.

Until the coronavirus plunged the world into global recession, Poland[60]fn09 Poland is the second-largest coal-mining country in Europe, after Germany, and the ninth-largest coal producer in the world. … As of 2020, coal powered 74% of Poland’s electricity … Continue reading had experienced three decades of Sustained Economic Expansion[61]fn01 Economic growth occurs when real output increases over time. … Sustainable economic growth means a rate of growth which can be maintained without creating other significant economic … Continue reading. But the country would need to rethink its economy to return to growth.

As electricity demand plummeted, caused by the pandemic and subsequent lockdowns, coal mines shuttered with difficult economic headwinds anticipated ahead even when the pandemic eases. And leaders in Brussels demanded that the country commit to Net Zero [62]fn01 Put simply, net zero refers to the balance between the amount of greenhouse gas produced and the amount removed from the atmosphere. We reach net zero when the amount we add is no more than the … Continue reading to be eligible for all of its allocated money under the Just Transition[63]fn01 Just Transition is a framework developed by the trade union movement to encompass a range of social interventions needed to secure workers’ rights and livelihoods when economies are … Continue reading program.

So, slowly, Poland[64]fn10 Poland is the second-largest coal-mining country in Europe, after Germany, and the ninth-largest coal producer in the world. … As of 2020, coal powered 74% of Poland’s electricity … Continue reading changed its tone. In late July, after months of foot dragging, Polish leaders signed on to the package. The deal would allow Poland[65]fn11 Poland is the second-largest coal-mining country in Europe, after Germany, and the ninth-largest coal producer in the world. … As of 2020, coal powered 74% of Poland’s electricity … Continue reading to receive half of its allocated Just Transition money even if it didn’t commit to eliminating its Carbon Footprint[66]fn02 carbon footprint https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Carbon_footprint. Polish Prime Minister Mateusz Morawiecki[67]fn01 Mateusz Jakub Morawiecki is a Polish economist, historian, and politician who has been the Prime Minister of Poland since December 2017 hailed it as a victory: “We won,” he said. But it was also a major concession to the E.U.: Poland[68]fn12 Poland is the second-largest coal-mining country in Europe, after Germany, and the ninth-largest coal producer in the world. … As of 2020, coal powered 74% of Poland’s electricity … Continue reading accepted that it would lose out on billions of euros unless it quickly changed course.

With that money on the line, the pressure has only grown. In September, the country achieved a break-through when it committed to close its mines by 2049, and suggested a willingness to consider the bigger promise to green its economy—with the right conditions. “We are not saying it’s impossible, but we are saying let’s make sure we all exactly know how it’s going to happen,” says Kurtyka[69]fn02: Michał Tadeusz Kurtyka is a Polish manager, economist, and civil servant who currently serves as the Minister of Climate and Environment. He is a technocrat and a non-partisan figure. Kurtyka … Continue reading the Climate Minister. “We cannot say in the office in Brussels[70]fn01 Brussels (French: Bruxelles [bʁysɛl] (About this soundlisten) or [bʁyksɛl]; Dutch: Brussel [ˈbrʏsəl] (About this soundlisten, officially the Brussels-Capital Region (French: Région de Bruxelles-Capitale; [a] Dutch: Brussels Hoofdstedelijk Gewest), [b] is a region of Belgium comprising 19 municipalities, including the City of Brussels, which is the capital of Belgium. The Brussels-Capital Region is located in the central portion of the country and is a part of both the French Community of Belgium and the Flemish Community, but is separate from the Flemish Region (within which it forms an enclave) and the Walloon Region. Brussels is the most densely populated and the richest region in Belgium in terms of GDP per capita. It covers 162 km2 (63 sq mi), a relatively small area compared to the two other regions, and has a population of over 1.2 million. The five times larger metropolitan area of Brussels comprises over 2.5 million people, which makes it the largest in Belgium. It is also part of a large conurbation extending towards Ghent, Antwerp, Leuven and Walloon Brabant, home to over 5 million people.)) or in Warsaw[71]fn02 Warsaw (/ˈwɔːrsɔː/ WOR-saw; Polish: Warszawa [varˈʂava] (About this soundlisten); see also other names) is the capital and largest city of Poland. The metropolis stands on the Vistula … Continue reading: ‘That will be the objective,’ and move on.”

In Poland[72]fn13 Poland is the second-largest coal-mining country in Europe, after Germany, and the ninth-largest coal producer in the world. … As of 2020, coal powered 74% of Poland’s electricity … Continue reading, discussions have begun from the bottom up. Rather than faceless bureaucrats sending down orders, plans for the energy transition fromFossil Fuels[73]fn04 A fossil fuel is a fuel formed by natural processes, such as anaerobic decomposition of buried dead organisms, containing organic molecules originating in ancient photosynthesis that release … Continue reading are being developed with the support and guidance of local communities—the people most likely to be affected by the change.

In the west-central region of Wielkopolska[74]fn01 Greater Poland, often known by its Polish name Wielkopolska ([vʲɛlkɔˈpɔlska] (About this soundlisten); German: Großpolen, Latin: Polonia Maior), is a historical region of west-central … Continue reading, for example, the E.U. estimates that 6,000 jobs in coal are threatened by the move away from Fossil Fuels[75]fn05 A fossil fuel is a fuel formed by natural processes, such as anaerobic decomposition of buried dead organisms, containing organic molecules originating in ancient photosynthesis that release … Continue reading. Maciej Sytek[76]fn01 Maciej Sytek is the Plenipotentiary of the Wielkopolska Regional Executive for the Restructuring of Eastern Wielkopolska, one of Poland’s lignite mining regions. He heads the Regional … Continue reading heads the regional authority charged with restructuring the local economy.

His mandate is huge.

He arranges regular meetings that incorporate labor unions, local government authorities and NGOs. The subcommittees are devoted not just to topics like the economic or energy implications of the transition but also to factors like Social Affairs[77]fn01 Social affairs covers decent jobs, social security, protection and inclusion, poverty reduction, gender equality, people with disabilities, the needs of children and families, young people, … Continue reading and Social Infrastructure[78]fn01 Social infrastructure can be broadly defined as the construction and maintenance of facilities that support social services. Types of social infrastructure include healthcare (hospitals), … Continue reading —a recognition of the cultural challenges inherent in ending a local industry. 

Police in Katowice, one of the most polluted cities in Europe, use drone technology to test smoke coming out of chimneys in 2018

Police in Katowice, one of the most polluted cities in Europe, use drone technology to test smoke coming out of chimneys in 2018. Maciek Nabrdalik—VII/Redu​x

Locals here are largely sold on the initiative already. They opposed plans to open new coal-mining territory when the current mines are depleted, and a local mine owner has even opted to train his employees to work in the solar industry. (The largest Polish solar farm is scheduled to open soon in Wielkopolska[79]fn02 Greater Poland, often known by its Polish name Wielkopolska ([vʲɛlkɔˈpɔlska] (About this soundlisten); German: Großpolen, Latin: Polonia Maior), is a historical region of west-central … Continue reading.)

Meanwhile, Sytek[80]fn02 Maciej Sytek is the Plenipotentiary of the Wielkopolska Regional Executive for the Restructuring of Eastern Wielkopolska, one of Poland’s lignite mining regions. He heads the Regional … Continue reading is working to attract a range of new industries. E.U. funding is critical to making it happen. “Sometimes you have to just honestly tell yourself that you need to change and start building something new,” he says.

But “it’s crucial that the people who lose their jobs are given a new identity, are given hope.” One model for progress can be found across the border in Germany, where as of 2018 some 32,000 people were directly employed in the coal-mining industry.

The German government launched a commission to study how to phase out the energy source in 2018. In coal-mining regions across the country, local leaders met with the commission and crafted regional priorities to be collated into one national plan that passed the German Parliament in July.

“We were able to agree on Big Transformative Policy[81]fn01 This means implementing policies and reforms that fundamentally change social institutions and relations to make them more inclusive and equitable, and that redistribute power and economic … Continue reading in a rather peaceful way,” says the German Environment Ministry’s.[82]fn02 The Federal Ministry of the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety, abbreviated BMU, is a cabinet-level ministry of the Federal Republic of Germany. It has branches in Bonn and … Continue reading Sach[83]fn02: born in 1959, is Deputy Director-General for European and international Policy in the Federal Ministry for Environment, Nature Conservation, Building and Nuclear Safety in Germany.

The coronavirus pandemic hasn’t changed the country’s road map, but it has changed the timeline. “We need to undertake investments, which otherwise would be staggered in the next 10 to 15 years, within the next three to five years,” says Sach[84]fn03: born in 1959, is Deputy Director-General for European and international Policy in the Federal Ministry for Environment, Nature Conservation, Building and Nuclear Safety in Germany.

Change is not equally welcome everywhere, however. Silesia[85]fn02 Silesia is a historical region of Central Europe mostly in Poland, with small parts in the Czech Republic and Germany. Its area is approximately 40,000 km², and the population is estimated at … Continue reading, the Polish region where Katowice[86]fn08 Katowice (UK: /ˌkætəˈviːtsə/ KAT-ə-VEET-sə, US: /ˌkɑːt-/ KAHT-, Polish: [katɔˈvitsɛ] (About this soundlisten); Silesian: Katowicy; German: Kattowitz) is a city in southern Poland, … Continue reading is located, poses perhaps the most difficult challenge for transition in the entire E.U. The coal sector employs some 73,000 workers there, and many in the region remain hesitant to give up the industry that for decades formed the backbone of their society.

Today, locals sadly recall the restructuring of the mines in the 1990s after the fall of the communist regime. That transition resulted in more efficient mines but left hundreds of thousands of people out of work. “In the small towns, if you close down a mine, you will experience a quick social degradation,” says Wystyrk[87]fn05 Works at Fanpage PGG Polska Grupa Górnicza; Studied Logistyka Inżynierska at Silesian University of Technology; Studied Międzynarodowe stosunki at Akademia Ekonomiczna im. Karola Adamieckiego … Continue reading, referring to the 1990s in Silesia[88]fn03 Silesia is a historical region of Central Europe mostly in Poland, with small parts in the Czech Republic and Germany. Its area is approximately 40,000 km², and the population is estimated at … Continue reading.

That’s not to say the efforts there haven’t started. Even before the advent of the Green Deal[89]fn07 SEE URL: https://ec.europa.eu/info/strategy/priorities-2019-2024/european-green-deal_en, local development authorities had begun planning for an energy transition. Since at least 2018, local leaders have engaged in conferences and dialogues on the topic, crafting plans to drive new investment and improve the quality of life.

A breakthrough came in September when Silesian coal-mining unions endorsed the plan to end coal mining by 2049. Still, many see that date as too far in the future to align with the

E.U.’s target and argue that the region still needs a plan to end those jobs within a reasonable time frame. Local trade unions remain skeptical that the disruption to jobs and livelihoods can be overcome with a quicker transition. “Sometimes local authorities are even weaker than the trade unions,” says Joanna Mackowiak[90]fn01 Dr. Joanna Mackowiak Pandera has been with Agora Energiewende since December 2013. She was previously a director in DONG Energy’s Warsaw office. For the Danish energy supplier, she was … Continue reading – Pandera[91]fn01 Outcome driven strategists and innovators changing the future of work. OUR APPROACH. We foster an innovation driven culture to provide our clients with the solutions necessary to improve … Continue reading, who heads Polish energy think tank Forum Energii.[92]fn01 Pandera Energii  aka Forum Energii is a think tank, focused on forging the foundation for a clean, innovative, safe and efficient energy sector based on data and analysis. We observe world … Continue reading

So the European leadership in Brussels[93]fn02 Brussels (French: Bruxelles [bʁysɛl] (About this soundlisten) or [bʁyksɛl]; Dutch: Brussel [ˈbrʏsəl] (About this soundlisten, officially the Brussels-Capital Region (French: Région de Bruxelles-Capitale; [a] Dutch: Brussels Hoofdstedelijk Gewest), [b] is a region of Belgium comprising 19 municipalities, including the City of Brussels, which is the capital of Belgium. The Brussels-Capital Region is located in the central portion of the country and is a part of both the French Community of Belgium and the Flemish Community, but is separate from the Flemish Region (within which it forms an enclave) and the Walloon Region. Brussels is the most densely populated and the richest region in Belgium in terms of GDP per capita. It covers 162 km2 (63 sq mi), a relatively small area compared to the two other regions, and has a population of over 1.2 million. The five times larger metropolitan area of Brussels comprises over 2.5 million people, which makes it the largest in Belgium. It is also part of a large conurbation extending towards Ghent, Antwerp, Leuven and Walloon Brabant, home to over 5 million people.)) is pulling out all the stops to convince this corner of the Continent that progress will not leave it behind, economically.

The European Economic Congress[94]fn01 The largest economic meeting of Central Europe is an event, the prestige and role of which in the space of European dialogue has been built for over a decade now. The European Economic Congress … Continue reading, an important business summit, convened in Katowice[95]fn09 Katowice (UK: /ˌkætəˈviːtsə/ KAT-ə-VEET-sə, US: /ˌkɑːt-/ KAHT-, Polish: [katɔˈvitsɛ] (About this soundlisten); Silesian: Katowicy; German: Kattowitz) is a city in southern Poland, … Continue reading in September, bringing some of the biggest companies and the most important policymakers to debate the future of Europe in the heart of Poland’s coal country.

Frans Timmermans[96]fn01 Green Deal Czar | Franciscus Cornelis Gerardus Maria Timmermans (Dutch pronunciation: [frɑnˈsɪskʏs kɔrˈneːlɪs xeːˈrɑrdʏs frɑns ˈtɪmərˌmɑns]; born 6 May 1961) is a Dutch … Continue reading, the E.U.’s Green Deal[97]fn08 SEE URL: https://ec.europa.eu/info/strategy/priorities-2019-2024/european-green-deal_en Czar[98]fn01 Czar, sometimes spelled tsar, is an informal title used for certain high-level officials in the United States and United Kingdom, typically granted broad power to address a particular issue. In … Continue reading, made the importance of the city to the bloc’s energy transition explicit in a speech. “We will have to roll up our sleeves to make sure that this transition is socially fair,” he said. “And there is no other region in Europe today where Just Transition is more important than in Silesia[99]fn04 Silesia is a historical region of Central Europe mostly in Poland, with small parts in the Czech Republic and Germany. Its area is approximately 40,000 km², and the population is estimated at … Continue reading.”

West Virginia[100]fn01 In 2019, West Virginia was the second-largest coal producer in the nation, after Wyoming, and accounted for 13% of U.S. total coal production. More than one-third of the more than 93 million … Continue reading and Silesia[101]fn05 Silesia is a historical region of Central Europe mostly in Poland, with small parts in the Czech Republic and Germany. Its area is approximately 40,000 km², and the population is estimated at … Continue reading may be 4,500 miles apart, but there’s a lot they could learn from each other. Just after President Trump [102]fn01 Donald John Trump is the 45th and current president of the United States. Before entering politics, he was a businessman and television personality. took office in 2017, I traveled to West Virginia, the heart of U.S. coal country, to talk to locals about the future of the industry.

Virtually everyone I interviewed knew the industry was in trouble and understood the reasons why. Yet they enthusiastically preferred Trump[103]fn02 Donald John Trump is the 45th and current president of the United States. Before entering politics, he was a businessman and television personality., who promised that he would miraculously “Make Coal Great Again” and restore the industry, over Hillary Clinton[104]fn01 Hillary Diane Rodham Clinton is an American politician, diplomat, lawyer, writer, and public speaker who served as the 67th United States secretary of state from 2009 to 2013, as a United States … Continue reading, who proposed giving coal communities $30 billion to adapt to life without it.

It shouldn’t have been a surprise. West Virginia[105]fn02 In 2019, West Virginia was the second-largest coal producer in the nation, after Wyoming, and accounted for 13% of U.S. total coal production. More than one-third of the more than 93 million … Continue reading, a Democratic stronghold as recently as the 1990s, has reliably voted red ever since Al Gore promised bold action on Climate Change[106]fn12 Climate variability includes all the variations in the climate that last longer than individual weather events, whereas the term climate change only refers to those variations that persist for a … Continue reading in his 2000 presidential run.

Simply put, building support to end an entire industry from the people who will be affected is a tall order—no matter how many billions politicians say they’ll deliver. And it’s even harder to do from a distant capital without boots on the ground.

That’s why what happens in Silesia[107]fn06 Silesia is a historical region of Central Europe mostly in Poland, with small parts in the Czech Republic and Germany. Its area is approximately 40,000 km², and the population is estimated at … Continue reading—for better or worse—will ripple around the world. Already, policymakers are watching closely.

A recent Columbia University report on Polish energy policy argued that the discussions between Warsaw[108]fn03 Warsaw (/ˈwɔːrsɔː/ WOR-saw; Polish: Warszawa [varˈʂava] (About this soundlisten); see also other names) is the capital and largest city of Poland. The metropolis stands on the Vistula … Continue reading and Brussels[109]fn03 Brussels (French: Bruxelles [bʁysɛl] (About this soundlisten) or [bʁyksɛl]; Dutch: Brussel [ˈbrʏsəl] (About this soundlisten, officially the Brussels-Capital Region (French: Région de Bruxelles-Capitale; [a] Dutch: Brussels Hoofdstedelijk Gewest), [b] is a region of Belgium comprising 19 municipalities, including the City of Brussels, which is the capital of Belgium. The Brussels-Capital Region is located in the central portion of the country and is a part of both the French Community of Belgium and the Flemish Community, but is separate from the Flemish Region (within which it forms an enclave) and the Walloon Region. Brussels is the most densely populated and the richest region in Belgium in terms of GDP per capita. It covers 162 km2 (63 sq mi), a relatively small area compared to the two other regions, and has a population of over 1.2 million. The five times larger metropolitan area of Brussels comprises over 2.5 million people, which makes it the largest in Belgium. It is also part of a large conurbation extending towards Ghent, Antwerp, Leuven and Walloon Brabant, home to over 5 million people.)) could offer “concrete proof ” that vulnerable communities will cooperate with climate measures under the right circumstances.

“It’s important to engage in good faith, and with patience and perseverance, with parts of a population that are climate cautious,” says report co-author Jonathan Elkind[110]fn01 Jonathan Elkind is a Senior Research Scholar at the Center on Global Energy Policy. Elkind came to the Center after a long and distinguished career devoted to energy and environment policy in … Continue reading, who ran the U.S. Department of Energy’s international-affairs department[111]fn01 The Office of International Affairs supports priorities of the Secretary of Energy and the Department of Energy at large. It focuses on enhancing global energy security through countering malign … Continue reading under President Obama. “All around the globe there are places and people who are more ambitious, and [people who are] more cautious.”

Supporters of Just Transition[112]fn02 Just Transition is a framework developed by the trade union movement to encompass a range of social interventions needed to secure workers’ rights and livelihoods when economies are … Continue reading measures say that they’re necessary to make climate policy politically viable. They certainly can’t hurt politically, but the truth is that industries reliant on Fossil-Fuels[113]fn06 A fossil fuel is a fuel formed by natural processes, such as anaerobic decomposition of buried dead organisms, containing organic molecules originating in ancient photosynthesis that release … Continue reading extraction are bound to evolve and, eventually, fade—regardless of whether local communities are on board.

Working on a plan now will simply ease the pain. Just ask the people watching the transition on the ground in Poland[114]fn14 Poland is the second-largest coal-mining country in Europe, after Germany, and the ninth-largest coal producer in the world. … As of 2020, coal powered 74% of Poland’s electricity … Continue reading. “We are deeply aware that there’s no alternative,” says Sytek[115]fn03 Maciej Sytek is the Plenipotentiary of the Wielkopolska Regional Executive for the Restructuring of Eastern Wielkopolska, one of Poland’s lignite mining regions. He heads the Regional … Continue reading, director of the energy transition in Wielkopolska[116]fn03 Greater Poland, often known by its Polish name Wielkopolska ([vʲɛlkɔˈpɔlska] (About this soundlisten); German: Großpolen, Latin: Polonia Maior), is a historical region of west-central … Continue reading. “We’re not tricking ourselves. Coal is not the future.”

—With reporting by Annabelle Chapman/Warsaw, and Anna Purna Kambhampaty and Julia Zorthian/New York



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Acknowledgements

Source: TIME (Double Edition)
Published:  2020 NOV 02/09
URL: time.com/collection/great-reset/

References

1 fn01 Poland is the second-largest coal-mining country in Europe, after Germany, and the ninth-largest coal producer in the world. … As of 2020, coal powered 74% of Poland’s electricity generation. However extraction is becoming increasingly difficult and expensive, and has become uncompetitive against Russian imports.
2 fn01 Kraków (/ˈkrækaʊ, -koʊ/, also US: /ˈkreɪk-, ˈkrɑːkaʊ/, UK: /ˈkrækɒf/, Polish: [ˈkrakuf] (About this soundlisten), written in English as Krakow and traditionally known as Cracow, is the second-largest and one of the oldest cities in Poland. Situated on the Vistula River in Lesser Poland Province, the city dates back to the 7th century.
3 fn01 Katowice (UK: /ˌkætəˈviːtsə/ KAT-ə-VEET-sə, US: /ˌkɑːt-/ KAHT-, Polish: [katɔˈvitsɛ] (About this soundlisten); Silesian: Katowicy; German: Kattowitz) is a city in southern Poland, the capital city of the Silesian Region, and a center of the Upper Silesia and Dąbrowa Basin Metropolis. With the population of 292,774 (as of 2019), it is the eleventh-largest city in Poland. The wider Katowice urban area has the population of approximately 2 to 3 million people.
4 fn01 A coal preparation plant (CPP; also known as a coal handling and preparation plant (CHPP), coal handling plant, prep plant, tipple or wash plant) is a facility that washes coal of soil and rock, crushes it into graded sized chunks (sorting), stockpiles grades preparing it for transport to market, and more often than not, also loads coal into rail cars, barges, or ships. The more of this waste material that can be removed from coal, the lower its total ash content, the greater its market value and the lower its transportation costs.
5 fn01 A coal-fired power station or coal power plant is a thermal power station which burns coal to generate electricity. Coal-fired power stations generate over a third of the world’s electricity but cause hundreds of thousands of early deaths each year, mainly from air pollution. A coal-fired power station is a type of fossil fuel power station. The coal is usually pulverized and then burned in a pulverized coal-fired boiler. The furnace heat converts boiler water to steam, which is then used to spin turbines that turn generators. Thus chemical energy stored in coal is converted successively into thermal energy, mechanical energy and, finally, electrical energy.
6 fn02 Katowice (UK: /ˌkætəˈviːtsə/ KAT-ə-VEET-sə, US: /ˌkɑːt-/ KAHT-, Polish: [katɔˈvitsɛ] (About this soundlisten); Silesian: Katowicy; German: Kattowitz) is a city in southern Poland, the capital city of the Silesian Region, and a center of the Upper Silesia and Dąbrowa Basin Metropolis. With the population of 292,774 (as of 2019), it is the eleventh-largest city in Poland. The wider Katowice urban area has the population of approximately 2 to 3 million people.
7 fn03 Katowice (UK: /ˌkætəˈviːtsə/ KAT-ə-VEET-sə, US: /ˌkɑːt-/ KAHT-, Polish: [katɔˈvitsɛ] (About this soundlisten); Silesian: Katowicy; German: Kattowitz) is a city in southern Poland, the capital city of the Silesian Region, and a center of the Upper Silesia and Dąbrowa Basin Metropolis. With the population of 292,774 (as of 2019), it is the eleventh-largest city in Poland. The wider Katowice urban area has the population of approximately 2 to 3 million people.
8 fn01 Silesia is a historical region of Central Europe mostly in Poland, with small parts in the Czech Republic and Germany. Its area is approximately 40,000 km², and the population is estimated at around 8,000,000. Silesia is split into two main sub regions, Lower Silesia in the west and Upper Silesia in the east.
9 fn02 Poland is the second-largest coal-mining country in Europe, after Germany, and the ninth-largest coal producer in the world. … As of 2020, coal powered 74% of Poland’s electricity generation. However extraction is becoming increasingly difficult and expensive, and has become uncompetitive against Russian imports.
10 fn01 Works at Fanpage PGG Polska Grupa Górnicza; Studied Logistyka Inżynierska at Silesian University of Technology; Studied Międzynarodowe stosunki at Akademia Ekonomiczna im. Karola Adamieckiego w K-cach; Studied Ekonomia at John Paul II Catholic University of Lublin; Lives in Rydułtowy
11 fn04 Katowice (UK: /ˌkætəˈviːtsə/ KAT-ə-VEET-sə, US: /ˌkɑːt-/ KAHT-, Polish: [katɔˈvitsɛ] (About this soundlisten); Silesian: Katowicy; German: Kattowitz) is a city in southern Poland, the capital city of the Silesian Region, and a center of the Upper Silesia and Dąbrowa Basin Metropolis. With the population of 292,774 (as of 2019), it is the eleventh-largest city in Poland. The wider Katowice urban area has the population of approximately 2 to 3 million people.
12 fn05 Katowice (UK: /ˌkætəˈviːtsə/ KAT-ə-VEET-sə, US: /ˌkɑːt-/ KAHT-, Polish: [katɔˈvitsɛ] (About this soundlisten); Silesian: Katowicy; German: Kattowitz) is a city in southern Poland, the capital city of the Silesian Region, and a center of the Upper Silesia and Dąbrowa Basin Metropolis. With the population of 292,774 (as of 2019), it is the eleventh-largest city in Poland. The wider Katowice urban area has the population of approximately 2 to 3 million people.
13 fn01 Environment Plan – ‘A Green Future: Long Term Plan to Improve the Environment’ SIX STEPS (1) Using and managing land sustainably (2) Recovering nature and enhancing the beauty of landscapes (3) Connecting people with the environment to improve health and wellbeing (4) Increasing resource efficiency and reducing pollution and waste (5) Securing clean, healthy, productive and biologically diverse seas and oceans (6) Protecting and improving our global environment SEE PDF lexology.com-A green future.pdf
14 fn01 Climate variability includes all the variations in the climate that last longer than individual weather events, whereas the term climate change only refers to those variations that persist for a longer period of time, typically decades or more.
15 fn01 SEE URL: https://ec.europa.eu/info/strategy/priorities-2019-2024/european-green-deal_en
16 fn01 carbon footprint https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Carbon_footprint
17 fn01 A low-carbon economy (LCE), low-fossil-fuel economy (LFFE), or decarbonised economy is an economy based on low-carbon power sources that therefore has a minimal output of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions into the atmosphere, specifically carbon dioxide. GHG emissions due to anthropogenic (human) activity are the dominant cause of observed global warming (climate change) since the mid-20th century. Continued emission of greenhouse gases may cause long-lasting changes around the world, increasing the likelihood of severe, pervasive, and irreversible effects for people and ecosystems.
18 fn01 Hydrogen storage is a term used for any of several methods for storing hydrogen for later use. These methods encompass mechanical approaches such as high pressures and low temperatures, or chemical compounds that release H2 upon demand. While large amounts of hydrogen is produced, it is mostly consumed at the site of production, notably for the synthesis of ammonia. For many years hydrogen has been stored as compressed gas or cryogenic liquid, and transported as such in cylinders, tubes, and cryogenic tanks for use in industry or as propellant in space programs. Interest in using hydrogen for on-board storage of energy in zero-emissions vehicles is motivating the development of new methods of storage, more adapted to this new application. The overarching challenge is the very low boiling point of H2: it boils around 20.268 K (−252.882 °C or −423.188 °F). Achieving such low temperatures requires significant energy.
19 fn01 Ursula Gertrud von der Leyen is a German politician and the president of the European Commission since 1 December 2019. She served in the federal government of Germany from 2005 to 2019 as the longest-serving member of Angela Merkel’s cabinet.
20 fn01 The European Commission is the executive branch of the European Union, responsible for proposing legislation, implementing decisions, upholding the EU treaties and managing the day-to-day business of the EU.
21 fn02 Climate variability includes all the variations in the climate that last longer than individual weather events, whereas the term climate change only refers to those variations that persist for a longer period of time, typically decades or more.
22 fn03 Climate variability includes all the variations in the climate that last longer than individual weather events, whereas the term climate change only refers to those variations that persist for a longer period of time, typically decades or more.
23 fn01 A fossil fuel is a fuel formed by natural processes, such as anaerobic decomposition of buried dead organisms, containing organic molecules originating in ancient photosynthesis that release energy in combustion.
24 fn02 A fossil fuel is a fuel formed by natural processes, such as anaerobic decomposition of buried dead organisms, containing organic molecules originating in ancient photosynthesis that release energy in combustion.
25 fn04 Climate variability includes all the variations in the climate that last longer than individual weather events, whereas the term climate change only refers to those variations that persist for a longer period of time, typically decades or more.
26 fn03 Poland is the second-largest coal-mining country in Europe, after Germany, and the ninth-largest coal producer in the world. … As of 2020, coal powered 74% of Poland’s electricity generation. However extraction is becoming increasingly difficult and expensive, and has become uncompetitive against Russian imports.
27 fn02 SEE URL: https://ec.europa.eu/info/strategy/priorities-2019-2024/european-green-deal_en
28 fn04 Poland is the second-largest coal-mining country in Europe, after Germany, and the ninth-largest coal producer in the world. … As of 2020, coal powered 74% of Poland’s electricity generation. However extraction is becoming increasingly difficult and expensive, and has become uncompetitive against Russian imports.
29 fn03 SEE URL: https://ec.europa.eu/info/strategy/priorities-2019-2024/european-green-deal_en
30 fn01 Michał Tadeusz Kurtyka is a Polish manager, economist, and civil servant who currently serves as the Minister of Climate and Environment. He is a technocrat and a non-partisan figure. Kurtyka served as President of the 2018 United Nations Climate Change Conference in Katowice.
31 fn01 Coal was discovered in Kentucky in 1750. Since the first commercial coal mine opened in 1820 coal has gained both economic importance and controversy regarding its environmental consequences. As of 2010 there were 442 operating coal mines in the state, and as of 2017 there are fewer than 4,000 underground coalminers.
32 fn01  Coal is Australia’s largest energy resource and around 60% of the nation’s electricity is currently produced in coal-fired power stations. Black coal is also used to produce coke (metallurgical or coking coals), which is mainly used in blast furnaces that produce iron and steel.
33 fn01 Coal mining in Ukraine is often associated with coal-rich Donets basin. However this is not the only coal mining region, other being Lviv-Volhynian basin and Dnieper brown coal mining basin. The Donets basin located in the eastern Ukraine is the most developed and much bigger coal mining region in the country. Ukraine was until recently, the third largest coal producer in Europe. In 1976, national production was 218 million metric tonnes. By 2016, production had dropped to 41 million metric tonnes. The Donets Black Coal Basin in the eastern Ukraine, with 90% of the nation’s reserves, suffers from three connected problems: (1) mines are not profitable enough to sustain capital investment, resulting in twenty-year old mining equipment and processes, (2) the government, taking advice from the International Monetary Fund, has discontinued $600 million annual mining subsidies, and (3) the Ukrainian government refuses to buy from mines controlled by the self-proclaimed Donetsk People’s Republic and Luhansk People’s Republic.
34 fn01 Indonesia holds 24,910 million tons (MMst) of proven coal reserves as of 2016, ranking 11th in the world and accounting for about 2% of the world’s total coal reserves of 1,139,471 million tons (MMst). … This means it has about 243 years of Coal left (at current consumption levels and excluding unproven reserves).
35 fn04 SEE URL: https://ec.europa.eu/info/strategy/priorities-2019-2024/european-green-deal_en
36 fn01 China is the largest producer and consumer of coal in the world and is the largest user of coal-derived electricity. The share of coal in the energy mix declined during the 2010s, falling from 80% in 2010 to 57.7% in 2019. Overall electricity consumption continued to rise in the 2010s, and new coal-fired power plants were constructed to help meet demand. But to curtail the pace of coal-fired power station construction, the National Energy Administration in 2017 canceled coal-fired power plant permits that would have amounted to 120 GW of future capacity. However, local authorities seeking to create jobs resisted the efforts of central authorities to cut back. Despite central government attempts to clamp down on construction and shifting demand in the market to renewable, nuclear and natural gas sources, 135 GW of coal-power capacity was either permitted or under construction in China according to a US-based NGO in January 2020. Chinese construction firms are also building coal-fired power stations in other countries.
37 fn01 Coal in India has been mined since 1774 and is now the second fastest mined in the world, producing 716 million metric tons (789 million short tons) in 2018. In 2017, India had 315.14 billion metric tons (347.38 billion short tons) of coal. The estimated total reserves of lignite coal that month was 44.70 billion metric tons (49.27 billion short tons). Due to high demand and poor average quality, India imports coking coal to meet the requirements of its steel plants. India’s coal imports have risen from 49.8 million metric tons (0.0549 billion short tons) in 2007–08 to 191 million metric tons (0.211 billion short tons) in 2016–17. India’s coal exports rose from 1.63 million metric tons (1.80 million short tons) in 2007–08 to 2.44 million metric tons (2.69 million short tons) in 2012–13, but subsequently declined to 1.77 million metric tons (1.95 million short tons) in 2016–17. Dhanbad city is the largest coal producing city. State-owned Coal India had a monopoly on coal mining between its nationalisation in 1973 and 2018. Coal-fired power plants have been criticised for breaking environmental laws, and phasing out coal would have short-term heath and environmental benefits greatly exceeding the costs.
38 fn01 Coal mining in the United States is an industry in transition. Production in 2017 was down 33% from the peak production of 1,162.7 million short tons (1,055 million metric tons) in 2006. … Generation of electricity is the largest user of coal, being used to produce 50% of electric power in 2005 and 27% in 2018.
39 fn01 Canada produced 57 Mt of coal in 2019, of which 53% is metallurgical coal used for steel manufacturing and 47% thermal coal used for electricity. … With the phasing out of coal-fired electricity by the Government of Canada, energy produced by coal will be eliminated by 2030
40 fn01 born in 1959, is Deputy Director-General for European and international Policy in the Federal Ministry for Environment, Nature Conservation, Building and Nuclear Safety in Germany
41 fn01 The Federal Ministry of the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety, abbreviated BMU, is a cabinet-level ministry of the Federal Republic of Germany. It has branches in Bonn and Berlin. The ministry was established on 6 June 1986 in response to the Chernobyl disaster.
42 fn06 Katowice (UK: /ˌkætəˈviːtsə/ KAT-ə-VEET-sə, US: /ˌkɑːt-/ KAHT-, Polish: [katɔˈvitsɛ] (About this soundlisten); Silesian: Katowicy; German: Kattowitz) is a city in southern Poland, the capital city of the Silesian Region, and a center of the Upper Silesia and Dąbrowa Basin Metropolis. With the population of 292,774 (as of 2019), it is the eleventh-largest city in Poland. The wider Katowice urban area has the population of approximately 2 to 3 million people.
43 fn02 Works at Fanpage PGG Polska Grupa Górnicza; Studied Logistyka Inżynierska at Silesian University of Technology; Studied Międzynarodowe stosunki at Akademia Ekonomiczna im. Karola Adamieckiego w K-cach; Studied Ekonomia at John Paul II Catholic University of Lublin; Lives in Rydułtowy
44 fn07 Katowice (UK: /ˌkætəˈviːtsə/ KAT-ə-VEET-sə, US: /ˌkɑːt-/ KAHT-, Polish: [katɔˈvitsɛ] (About this soundlisten); Silesian: Katowicy; German: Kattowitz) is a city in southern Poland, the capital city of the Silesian Region, and a center of the Upper Silesia and Dąbrowa Basin Metropolis. With the population of 292,774 (as of 2019), it is the eleventh-largest city in Poland. The wider Katowice urban area has the population of approximately 2 to 3 million people.
45 fn03 Works at Fanpage PGG Polska Grupa Górnicza; Studied Logistyka Inżynierska at Silesian University of Technology; Studied Międzynarodowe stosunki at Akademia Ekonomiczna im. Karola Adamieckiego w K-cach; Studied Ekonomia at John Paul II Catholic University of Lublin; Lives in Rydułtowy
46 fn08 Climate variability includes all the variations in the climate that last longer than individual weather events, whereas the term climate change only refers to those variations that persist for a longer period of time, typically decades or more.
47 fn09 Climate variability includes all the variations in the climate that last longer than individual weather events, whereas the term climate change only refers to those variations that persist for a longer period of time, typically decades or more.
48 fn03 A fossil fuel is a fuel formed by natural processes, such as anaerobic decomposition of buried dead organisms, containing organic molecules originating in ancient photosynthesis that release energy in combustion.
49 fn05 Poland is the second-largest coal-mining country in Europe, after Germany, and the ninth-largest coal producer in the world. … As of 2020, coal powered 74% of Poland’s electricity generation. However extraction is becoming increasingly difficult and expensive, and has become uncompetitive against Russian imports.
50 fn06 Poland is the second-largest coal-mining country in Europe, after Germany, and the ninth-largest coal producer in the world. … As of 2020, coal powered 74% of Poland’s electricity generation. However extraction is becoming increasingly difficult and expensive, and has become uncompetitive against Russian imports.
51 fn07 Poland is the second-largest coal-mining country in Europe, after Germany, and the ninth-largest coal producer in the world. … As of 2020, coal powered 74% of Poland’s electricity generation. However extraction is becoming increasingly difficult and expensive, and has become uncompetitive against Russian imports.
52 fn10 Climate variability includes all the variations in the climate that last longer than individual weather events, whereas the term climate change only refers to those variations that persist for a longer period of time, typically decades or more.
53 fn05 SEE URL: https://ec.europa.eu/info/strategy/priorities-2019-2024/european-green-deal_en
54 fn06 SEE URL: https://ec.europa.eu/info/strategy/priorities-2019-2024/european-green-deal_en
55 fn02 Ursula Gertrud von der Leyen is a German politician and the president of the European Commission since 1 December 2019. She served in the federal government of Germany from 2005 to 2019 as the longest-serving member of Angela Merkel’s cabinet.
56 fn08 Poland is the second-largest coal-mining country in Europe, after Germany, and the ninth-largest coal producer in the world. … As of 2020, coal powered 74% of Poland’s electricity generation. However extraction is becoming increasingly difficult and expensive, and has become uncompetitive against Russian imports.
57 fn01 Andrzej Sebastian Duda is a Polish lawyer and politician who has served as president of Poland since 6 August 2015. Before becoming president, Andrzej Duda was a member of the Polish Lower House of Parliament from 2011 to 2014 and served as an MEP from 2014 to 2015.
58 fn01 Carbon neutrality refers to achieving net zero carbon dioxide emissions by balancing carbon dioxide emissions with removal (often through carbon offsetting) or simply eliminating carbon dioxide emissions altogether (the transition to the “post-carbon economy”).
59 fn01 Warsaw (/ˈwɔːrsɔː/ WOR-saw; Polish: Warszawa [varˈʂava] (About this soundlisten); see also other names) is the capital and largest city of Poland. The metropolis stands on the Vistula River in east-central Poland and its population is officially estimated at 1.8 million residents within a greater metropolitan area of 3.1 million residents, which makes Warsaw the 7th most-populous capital city in the European Union.
60 fn09 Poland is the second-largest coal-mining country in Europe, after Germany, and the ninth-largest coal producer in the world. … As of 2020, coal powered 74% of Poland’s electricity generation. However extraction is becoming increasingly difficult and expensive, and has become uncompetitive against Russian imports.
61 fn01 Economic growth occurs when real output increases over time. … Sustainable economic growth means a rate of growth which can be maintained without creating other significant economic problems, especially for future generations. There is clearly a trade-off between rapid economic growth today, and growth in the future.
62 fn01 Put simply, net zero refers to the balance between the amount of greenhouse gas produced and the amount removed from the atmosphere. We reach net zero when the amount we add is no more than the amount taken away.
63 fn01 Just Transition is a framework developed by the trade union movement to encompass a range of social interventions needed to secure workers’ rights and livelihoods when economies are shifting to sustainable production, primarily combating climate change and protecting biodiversity. The concept can be considered an ecological application of economic conversion, which was developed in the 1980s when anti-war activists sought to build a coalition with military workers and give them a stake in the peace economy. Climate goals and global climate change agreements set standards for a clean economy. In the process, sectors such as energy, manufacturing, agriculture, and forestry, which employ millions of workers, must restructure. There is a concern that periods of economic structural change in the past have left ordinary workers, their families, and communities to bear the costs of the transition to new ways of producing wealth, leading to unemployment, poverty, and exclusion for the working class, in contrast to business owners who are able to afford the transition. Just Transition addresses this concern by promoting sustainable actions that help workers. Uniting social and climate justice by means of a Just Transition means to comply with demands for fairness for coal workers in coal-dependent developing regions who lack employment opportunities beyond coal; fairness for workers in emerging economies that demand their share of the “industrialisation dividend”; fairness for those having to leave their homes as sea levels rise and engulf coastal regions and islands as a consequence of climate change; fairness for populations affected by the air pollution and broader environmental impacts of coal use etc. For example, the Green New Deal outlines goals to protect the climate, and a Just Transition framework outlines strategies to accomplish these goals while protecting workers. It has been endorsed internationally by governments in different arenas, including the International Labour Organization (ILO)’s 2015 “Guidelines on a Just Transition towards environmentally-sustainable economies and societies for all,” the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC)’s Paris Agreement, and the Katowice Climate Conference (COP24)’s 2018 Solidarity and Just Transition Silesia Declaration.
64 fn10 Poland is the second-largest coal-mining country in Europe, after Germany, and the ninth-largest coal producer in the world. … As of 2020, coal powered 74% of Poland’s electricity generation. However extraction is becoming increasingly difficult and expensive, and has become uncompetitive against Russian imports.
65 fn11 Poland is the second-largest coal-mining country in Europe, after Germany, and the ninth-largest coal producer in the world. … As of 2020, coal powered 74% of Poland’s electricity generation. However extraction is becoming increasingly difficult and expensive, and has become uncompetitive against Russian imports.
66 fn02 carbon footprint https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Carbon_footprint
67 fn01 Mateusz Jakub Morawiecki is a Polish economist, historian, and politician who has been the Prime Minister of Poland since December 2017
68 fn12 Poland is the second-largest coal-mining country in Europe, after Germany, and the ninth-largest coal producer in the world. … As of 2020, coal powered 74% of Poland’s electricity generation. However extraction is becoming increasingly difficult and expensive, and has become uncompetitive against Russian imports.
69 fn02: Michał Tadeusz Kurtyka is a Polish manager, economist, and civil servant who currently serves as the Minister of Climate and Environment. He is a technocrat and a non-partisan figure. Kurtyka served as President of the 2018 United Nations Climate Change Conference in Katowice.
70 fn01 Brussels (French: Bruxelles [bʁysɛl] (About this soundlisten) or [bʁyksɛl]; Dutch: Brussel [ˈbrʏsəl] (About this soundlisten
71 fn02 Warsaw (/ˈwɔːrsɔː/ WOR-saw; Polish: Warszawa [varˈʂava] (About this soundlisten); see also other names) is the capital and largest city of Poland. The metropolis stands on the Vistula River in east-central Poland and its population is officially estimated at 1.8 million residents within a greater metropolitan area of 3.1 million residents, which makes Warsaw the 7th most-populous capital city in the European Union.
72 fn13 Poland is the second-largest coal-mining country in Europe, after Germany, and the ninth-largest coal producer in the world. … As of 2020, coal powered 74% of Poland’s electricity generation. However extraction is becoming increasingly difficult and expensive, and has become uncompetitive against Russian imports.
73 fn04 A fossil fuel is a fuel formed by natural processes, such as anaerobic decomposition of buried dead organisms, containing organic molecules originating in ancient photosynthesis that release energy in combustion.
74 fn01 Greater Poland, often known by its Polish name Wielkopolska ([vʲɛlkɔˈpɔlska] (About this soundlisten); German: Großpolen, Latin: Polonia Maior), is a historical region of west-central Poland. Its chief and largest city is Poznań followed by Kalisz, the oldest city in Poland. The boundaries of Greater Poland have varied somewhat throughout history. Since the Middle Ages, the proper Wielkopolska land was split into the Poznań and Kalisz voivodeships. In the wider sense, it encompassed also Sieradz, Łęczyca, Brześć Kujawski and Inowrocław voivodeships which were situated more eastward. After the Partitions of Poland at the end of the 18th century, Greater Poland was incorporated into Prussia as the Grand Duchy of Posen. The region in the proper sense roughly coincides with the present-day Greater Poland Voivodeship (Polish: województwo wielkopolskie). Similarly to the historical regions of Pomerania, Silesia, Mazovia or Lesser Poland, the Greater Poland region possesses its own distinctive folk costumes, architecture, cuisine, dialect and other traditions that differ from other parts of Poland.
75 fn05 A fossil fuel is a fuel formed by natural processes, such as anaerobic decomposition of buried dead organisms, containing organic molecules originating in ancient photosynthesis that release energy in combustion.
76 fn01 Maciej Sytek is the Plenipotentiary of the Wielkopolska Regional Executive for the Restructuring of Eastern Wielkopolska, one of Poland’s lignite mining regions. He heads the Regional Development Agency (ARR S.A.) in Konin, building on his many years of working experience in the fields of regional development, economic and social development and innovation.
77 fn01 Social affairs covers decent jobs, social security, protection and inclusion, poverty reduction, gender equality, people with disabilities, the needs of children and families, young people, older people and minorities such as Roma, access to health, justice, education, culture and sport, volunteering and active citizenship. Its main focus, common to all subareas, is to put people on an equal footing at the centre of social policy and its main political instrument at the EU level is the European Pillar of Social Rights.
78 fn01 Social infrastructure can be broadly defined as the construction and maintenance of facilities that support social services. Types of social infrastructure include healthcare (hospitals), education (schools and universities), public facilities (community housing and prisons) and transportation (railways and roads).
79 fn02 Greater Poland, often known by its Polish name Wielkopolska ([vʲɛlkɔˈpɔlska] (About this soundlisten); German: Großpolen, Latin: Polonia Maior), is a historical region of west-central Poland. Its chief and largest city is Poznań followed by Kalisz, the oldest city in Poland. The boundaries of Greater Poland have varied somewhat throughout history. Since the Middle Ages, the proper Wielkopolska land was split into the Poznań and Kalisz voivodeships. In the wider sense, it encompassed also Sieradz, Łęczyca, Brześć Kujawski and Inowrocław voivodeships which were situated more eastward. After the Partitions of Poland at the end of the 18th century, Greater Poland was incorporated into Prussia as the Grand Duchy of Posen. The region in the proper sense roughly coincides with the present-day Greater Poland Voivodeship (Polish: województwo wielkopolskie). Similarly to the historical regions of Pomerania, Silesia, Mazovia or Lesser Poland, the Greater Poland region possesses its own distinctive folk costumes, architecture, cuisine, dialect and other traditions that differ from other parts of Poland.
80 fn02 Maciej Sytek is the Plenipotentiary of the Wielkopolska Regional Executive for the Restructuring of Eastern Wielkopolska, one of Poland’s lignite mining regions. He heads the Regional Development Agency (ARR S.A.) in Konin, building on his many years of working experience in the fields of regional development, economic and social development and innovation.
81 fn01 This means implementing policies and reforms that fundamentally change social institutions and relations to make them more inclusive and equitable, and that redistribute power and economic resources.
82 fn02 The Federal Ministry of the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety, abbreviated BMU, is a cabinet-level ministry of the Federal Republic of Germany. It has branches in Bonn and Berlin. The ministry was established on 6 June 1986 in response to the Chernobyl disaster.
83 fn02: born in 1959, is Deputy Director-General for European and international Policy in the Federal Ministry for Environment, Nature Conservation, Building and Nuclear Safety in Germany
84 fn03: born in 1959, is Deputy Director-General for European and international Policy in the Federal Ministry for Environment, Nature Conservation, Building and Nuclear Safety in Germany
85 fn02 Silesia is a historical region of Central Europe mostly in Poland, with small parts in the Czech Republic and Germany. Its area is approximately 40,000 km², and the population is estimated at around 8,000,000. Silesia is split into two main sub regions, Lower Silesia in the west and Upper Silesia in the east.
86 fn08 Katowice (UK: /ˌkætəˈviːtsə/ KAT-ə-VEET-sə, US: /ˌkɑːt-/ KAHT-, Polish: [katɔˈvitsɛ] (About this soundlisten); Silesian: Katowicy; German: Kattowitz) is a city in southern Poland, the capital city of the Silesian Region, and a center of the Upper Silesia and Dąbrowa Basin Metropolis. With the population of 292,774 (as of 2019), it is the eleventh-largest city in Poland. The wider Katowice urban area has the population of approximately 2 to 3 million people.
87 fn05 Works at Fanpage PGG Polska Grupa Górnicza; Studied Logistyka Inżynierska at Silesian University of Technology; Studied Międzynarodowe stosunki at Akademia Ekonomiczna im. Karola Adamieckiego w K-cach; Studied Ekonomia at John Paul II Catholic University of Lublin; Lives in Rydułtowy
88 fn03 Silesia is a historical region of Central Europe mostly in Poland, with small parts in the Czech Republic and Germany. Its area is approximately 40,000 km², and the population is estimated at around 8,000,000. Silesia is split into two main sub regions, Lower Silesia in the west and Upper Silesia in the east.
89 fn07 SEE URL: https://ec.europa.eu/info/strategy/priorities-2019-2024/european-green-deal_en
90 fn01 Dr. Joanna Mackowiak Pandera has been with Agora Energiewende since December 2013. She was previously a director in DONG Energy’s Warsaw office. For the Danish energy supplier, she was responsible for market development in the field of renewable energies. From 2007–2011 she worked as Deputy Minister for the Polish Ministry of the Environment and was responsible for the EU Council Presidency of Poland and Director of the Cabinet of Environment Minister Maciej Nowicki.
91 fn01 Outcome driven strategists and innovators changing the future of work. OUR APPROACH. We foster an innovation driven culture to provide our clients with the solutions necessary to improve performance. When we combine our skills and approach with extensive industry knowledge and expertise, we equip clients with an incomparable level of competitiveness. OUR PEOPLE We bring together the most advanced engineers, data scientists, and technologists to help transform the world’s leading brands. Our teams at Pandera work in multi-disciplinary environments harnessing data and technology to change the future of how people work.
92 fn01 Pandera Energii  aka Forum Energii is a think tank, focused on forging the foundation for a clean, innovative, safe and efficient energy sector based on data and analysis. We observe world trends, analyze data and changes in regulations. We share our knowledge through research activities and by supporting dialogue on the future of power sector. Our mission is to support Poland’s implementation of climate goals in 2020 and in 2030.
93 fn02 Brussels (French: Bruxelles [bʁysɛl] (About this soundlisten) or [bʁyksɛl]; Dutch: Brussel [ˈbrʏsəl] (About this soundlisten
94 fn01 The largest economic meeting of Central Europe is an event, the prestige and role of which in the space of European dialogue has been built for over a decade now. The European Economic Congress (EEC) has become a broad and open forum for the exchange of experiences, opinions and knowledge about the Polish and European economy as well as the economic, social and technological conditions for its development.

 The aim of the Congress has always been to identify phenomena and trends of key importance to the future of the economy and the prospects of its development.

Business – both large and small, traditional and innovative, domestic and global – has accepted the three-day meeting in Katowice as an effective and fruitful platform for establishing direct B2B contacts.
95 fn09 Katowice (UK: /ˌkætəˈviːtsə/ KAT-ə-VEET-sə, US: /ˌkɑːt-/ KAHT-, Polish: [katɔˈvitsɛ] (About this soundlisten); Silesian: Katowicy; German: Kattowitz) is a city in southern Poland, the capital city of the Silesian Region, and a center of the Upper Silesia and Dąbrowa Basin Metropolis. With the population of 292,774 (as of 2019), it is the eleventh-largest city in Poland. The wider Katowice urban area has the population of approximately 2 to 3 million people.
96 fn01 Green Deal Czar | Franciscus Cornelis Gerardus Maria Timmermans (Dutch pronunciation: [frɑnˈsɪskʏs kɔrˈneːlɪs xeːˈrɑrdʏs frɑns ˈtɪmərˌmɑns]; born 6 May 1961) is a Dutch politician and diplomat serving as First Vice President of the European Commission since 2014, and has served in the von der Leyen Commission as Executive Vice President of the European Commission for the European Green Deal and European Commissioner for Climate Action since 2019. He previously served as First Vice-President to Jean-Claude Juncker and European Commissioner for Better Regulation, Interinstitutional Relations, the Rule of Law and the Charter of Fundamental Rights from 2014 to 2019. He was the lead candidate of the Party of European Socialists (PES) for President of the European Commission in the European election that was held in May 2019.
97 fn08 SEE URL: https://ec.europa.eu/info/strategy/priorities-2019-2024/european-green-deal_en
98 fn01 Czar, sometimes spelled tsar, is an informal title used for certain high-level officials in the United States and United Kingdom, typically granted broad power to address a particular issue. In the United States, czars are generally executive branch officials appointed by the head of the executive branch (such as the President for the federal government, or the Governor of a state). Some czars may require confirmation with Senate approval or not. Some appointees outside the executive branch are called czars as well. Specific instances of the term are often a media creation. In the United Kingdom, the term is more loosely used to refer to high-profile appointments who devote their skills to one particular area.
99 fn04 Silesia is a historical region of Central Europe mostly in Poland, with small parts in the Czech Republic and Germany. Its area is approximately 40,000 km², and the population is estimated at around 8,000,000. Silesia is split into two main sub regions, Lower Silesia in the west and Upper Silesia in the east.
100 fn01 In 2019, West Virginia was the second-largest coal producer in the nation, after Wyoming, and accounted for 13% of U.S. total coal production. More than one-third of the more than 93 million tons of coal mined in West Virginia was exported to foreign markets.
101 fn05 Silesia is a historical region of Central Europe mostly in Poland, with small parts in the Czech Republic and Germany. Its area is approximately 40,000 km², and the population is estimated at around 8,000,000. Silesia is split into two main sub regions, Lower Silesia in the west and Upper Silesia in the east.
102 fn01 Donald John Trump is the 45th and current president of the United States. Before entering politics, he was a businessman and television personality.
103 fn02 Donald John Trump is the 45th and current president of the United States. Before entering politics, he was a businessman and television personality.
104 fn01 Hillary Diane Rodham Clinton is an American politician, diplomat, lawyer, writer, and public speaker who served as the 67th United States secretary of state from 2009 to 2013, as a United States senator from New York from 2001 to 2009, and as First Lady of the United States from 1993 to 2001.
105 fn02 In 2019, West Virginia was the second-largest coal producer in the nation, after Wyoming, and accounted for 13% of U.S. total coal production. More than one-third of the more than 93 million tons of coal mined in West Virginia was exported to foreign markets.
106 fn12 Climate variability includes all the variations in the climate that last longer than individual weather events, whereas the term climate change only refers to those variations that persist for a longer period of time, typically decades or more.
107 fn06 Silesia is a historical region of Central Europe mostly in Poland, with small parts in the Czech Republic and Germany. Its area is approximately 40,000 km², and the population is estimated at around 8,000,000. Silesia is split into two main sub regions, Lower Silesia in the west and Upper Silesia in the east.
108 fn03 Warsaw (/ˈwɔːrsɔː/ WOR-saw; Polish: Warszawa [varˈʂava] (About this soundlisten); see also other names) is the capital and largest city of Poland. The metropolis stands on the Vistula River in east-central Poland and its population is officially estimated at 1.8 million residents within a greater metropolitan area of 3.1 million residents, which makes Warsaw the 7th most-populous capital city in the European Union.
109 fn03 Brussels (French: Bruxelles [bʁysɛl] (About this soundlisten) or [bʁyksɛl]; Dutch: Brussel [ˈbrʏsəl] (About this soundlisten
110 fn01 Jonathan Elkind is a Senior Research Scholar at the Center on Global Energy Policy. Elkind came to the Center after a long and distinguished career devoted to energy and environment policy in the private and public sectors. From 2009 to 2017, he worked on international energy and climate issues at the United States Department of Energy, helping to coordinate energy policy in the Obama Administration and leading climate and energy programs with key global partners. He departed DOE as Assistant Secretary for International Affairs.
111 fn01 The Office of International Affairs supports priorities of the Secretary of Energy and the Department of Energy at large. It focuses on enhancing global energy security through countering malign influence, diversifying supplies, and increasing energy access. At the same time the office is committed to increasing U.S. energy exports and trade to enhance growth.
112 fn02 Just Transition is a framework developed by the trade union movement to encompass a range of social interventions needed to secure workers’ rights and livelihoods when economies are shifting to sustainable production, primarily combating climate change and protecting biodiversity. The concept can be considered an ecological application of economic conversion, which was developed in the 1980s when anti-war activists sought to build a coalition with military workers and give them a stake in the peace economy. Climate goals and global climate change agreements set standards for a clean economy. In the process, sectors such as energy, manufacturing, agriculture, and forestry, which employ millions of workers, must restructure. There is a concern that periods of economic structural change in the past have left ordinary workers, their families, and communities to bear the costs of the transition to new ways of producing wealth, leading to unemployment, poverty, and exclusion for the working class, in contrast to business owners who are able to afford the transition. Just Transition addresses this concern by promoting sustainable actions that help workers. Uniting social and climate justice by means of a Just Transition means to comply with demands for fairness for coal workers in coal-dependent developing regions who lack employment opportunities beyond coal; fairness for workers in emerging economies that demand their share of the “industrialisation dividend”; fairness for those having to leave their homes as sea levels rise and engulf coastal regions and islands as a consequence of climate change; fairness for populations affected by the air pollution and broader environmental impacts of coal use etc. For example, the Green New Deal outlines goals to protect the climate, and a Just Transition framework outlines strategies to accomplish these goals while protecting workers. It has been endorsed internationally by governments in different arenas, including the International Labour Organization (ILO)’s 2015 “Guidelines on a Just Transition towards environmentally-sustainable economies and societies for all,” the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC)’s Paris Agreement, and the Katowice Climate Conference (COP24)’s 2018 Solidarity and Just Transition Silesia Declaration.
113 fn06 A fossil fuel is a fuel formed by natural processes, such as anaerobic decomposition of buried dead organisms, containing organic molecules originating in ancient photosynthesis that release energy in combustion.
114 fn14 Poland is the second-largest coal-mining country in Europe, after Germany, and the ninth-largest coal producer in the world. … As of 2020, coal powered 74% of Poland’s electricity generation. However extraction is becoming increasingly difficult and expensive, and has become uncompetitive against Russian imports.
115 fn03 Maciej Sytek is the Plenipotentiary of the Wielkopolska Regional Executive for the Restructuring of Eastern Wielkopolska, one of Poland’s lignite mining regions. He heads the Regional Development Agency (ARR S.A.) in Konin, building on his many years of working experience in the fields of regional development, economic and social development and innovation.
116 fn03 Greater Poland, often known by its Polish name Wielkopolska ([vʲɛlkɔˈpɔlska] (About this soundlisten); German: Großpolen, Latin: Polonia Maior), is a historical region of west-central Poland. Its chief and largest city is Poznań followed by Kalisz, the oldest city in Poland. The boundaries of Greater Poland have varied somewhat throughout history. Since the Middle Ages, the proper Wielkopolska land was split into the Poznań and Kalisz voivodeships. In the wider sense, it encompassed also Sieradz, Łęczyca, Brześć Kujawski and Inowrocław voivodeships which were situated more eastward. After the Partitions of Poland at the end of the 18th century, Greater Poland was incorporated into Prussia as the Grand Duchy of Posen. The region in the proper sense roughly coincides with the present-day Greater Poland Voivodeship (Polish: województwo wielkopolskie). Similarly to the historical regions of Pomerania, Silesia, Mazovia or Lesser Poland, the Greater Poland region possesses its own distinctive folk costumes, architecture, cuisine, dialect and other traditions that differ from other parts of Poland.
117 FN01 Hillary Diane Rodham Clinton is an American politician, diplomat, lawyer, writer, and public speaker who served as the 67th United States secretary of state from 2009 to 2013, as a United States senator from New York from 2001 to 2009, and as First Lady of the United States from 1993 to 2001.

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